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名人塑像的介绍

2019.01.10

中国的真正意义上的名人塑像于本世纪从西方引进,"五四"新文化运动之风,顺便把肖像名人塑像带入了我国。一尊优秀的名人雕塑,他的造型透露出一股直击人心的感染力,造型与文化完美地结合,历史和现实融为一体。名人雕塑对于一个环境空间的场域有着不可忽视的重要作用,能够增加城市空间的风貌和特色。 名人雕塑具有现实的教育意义,弘扬了我国优秀的传统文化。
我国最早的一批留洋的老前辈在学成回国之后,陆续创作了各种各样的反映革命先驱,爱国志士,文化名人等肖像作品,拥抱了正在中国发生的反帝、反封建的进步文化运动,为民族解放的进步事业作出了贡献。中国肖像的真正高潮还是新中国成立以后至今的这五十年。二、三十年代留法、留日的人才班底,加上五十年代留苏的队伍,并结合中国的具体情况,共同构建了中国的写实主义体系。目前的八大美术院虽各有不同,但都属于一个大体系,这个体系就是过去常提的现实主义体系。这个体系首先突出的是扎实的写实基本功,以及源于生活,高于生活的创作方法。所有美术院校都将创作纪念性人物肖像作为主要教学课程之一。在此值得一提的是老一辈名人塑像家在引进西洋写实名人塑像的同时,倡导、弘扬并传授了民族传统名人塑像的若干精华,为具像及肖像名人塑像的民族化作了不懈的努力。这样一个体系培养出的学生,完全适应了新中国的社会文化建设的需要。名人塑像家们创作了大量为社会作出了贡献的英雄、模范、工人、农民、士兵、知识分子、少数民族肖像,当然还创作了大量的领袖人物肖像,特别是文化大革命中席卷全国的毛泽东塑像热以及样板名人塑像《收租院》、《农奴愤》等各地的阶级教育群雕,良好地将中国的写实名人塑像队伍以及现实主义体系过渡到了改革开放的新时代。

The true sense of Chinese celebrity statues was introduced from the West in this century, and the "May 4th" New Culture Movement brought portrait celebrity statues into China by the way. After returning home from their studies, the earliest group of Chinese elders who stayed abroad created various portraits reflecting revolutionary pioneers, patriots and cultural celebrities. They embraced the progressive cultural movement against imperialism and feudalism that is taking place in China and made contributions to the progressive cause of national liberation. The real climax of Chinese portraits is the fifty years since the founding of New China. In the 1920s and 1930s, the team of talented people who stayed in France and Japan, together with the contingent of people who stayed in the Soviet Union in the 1950s, combined with the specific conditions of China, jointly constructed the realism system of China. Although the eight major art academies are different at present, they all belong to a general system, which is the system of realism often mentioned in the past. This system first highlights the solid basic skills of realism, as well as the creative methods derived from life, which are higher than life. All art colleges take the creation of memorial portraits as one of the main teaching courses. It is worth mentioning that the old generation of celebrity sculptors advocated, promoted and imparted the essence of traditional national celebrity sculptures while introducing realistic Western celebrity sculptures, and made unremitting efforts for the nationalization of the figurines and portrait celebrity sculptures. The students trained by such a system fully meet the needs of the social and cultural construction of New China. Celebrity sculptors have created a large number of portraits of heroes, models, workers, peasants, soldiers, intellectuals and ethnic minorities who have made great contributions to society. Of course, they have also created a large number of portraits of leaders, especially the Mao Zedong statue fever sweeping the whole country during the Cultural Revolution, as well as the class education group sculptures of model celebrities such as Rent Collection Yard and Servant Indignation. The team of realistic celebrities and the realist system in China have been transformed into a new era of reform and opening up.

改革开放的时代为中国文化艺术的发展提供了前所未有的广阔空间,各种思潮、流派群雄逐鹿,并相互影响,相互撞击,构成了当代中国文化艺术的瑰丽景观,名人塑像界也一样。也可以这样说,中国名人塑像正在经历前所未有的大好时期,以及前所未有的大冲击,大变革。新时代的肖像艺术作品作为其中的一道风景,照样绽放着自己的光彩。首先由于社会经济的大发展,应各地两个文明建设的需求,一大批中国历史英雄、科学家、文化名人等室外纪念像为广大热衷肖像名人塑像的艺术家提供了大显身手的机会,然后就是他们为参加各类展览创作了大量肖像名人塑像作品。新时期的肖像创作更倾向于人性化以及内心化,更注意对象的个性张扬,这符合当代社会对人本和人性的关怀。

The era of reform and opening-up has provided unprecedented broad space for the development of Chinese culture and art. Various ideological trends and schools compete for each other and interact with each other, constituting a magnificent landscape of contemporary Chinese culture and art, as well as celebrity sculpture circles. It can also be said that Chinese celebrity statues are experiencing unprecedented good times, as well as unprecedented impact and great changes. Portrait works of art in the new era, as one of the scenery, are still blooming with their own brilliance. Firstly, due to the great development of social economy and the need of the construction of two civilizations, a large number of outdoor Memorial portraits of Chinese historical heroes, scientists and cultural celebrities have provided artists who are keen on portrait and celebrity statues with great opportunities to show their talents. Then, they have created a large number of portrait and celebrity statues for participating in various exhibitions. In the new era, portrait creation tends to be humanized and internalized, and pays more attention to the personality of the object, which accords with the contemporary society's concern for humanity and humanity.

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